Queer habit and ecology of cherimoya


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  The cherimoya is weak to coldness, weak also to the heat only in the origin of a tropical high ground, and a suitable growth and development temperature is 18-25 degree in centigrade.

  If the characteristic is understood and the hand is put, the fruit tree which grows up in obedience like this is also few though there are a queer mode of life and a habit, is hard to please one side.

  Please come to the cherimoya laboratory if wanting to know in detail.


Growth starts the bearing early in three years.

  The tree form of the cherimoya becomes a central leader type or a hemisphere type which stands upright when naturally growing up, and height becomes 4-8 meter.It germinates after leaves is lost in the tree of the character to lose leaves partly in the spring.

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  The leaf is big in simple leaf to be parasitic in the branch in alternate phyllotaxis. The surface of the leaf is moss green color, and length is 8-25 centimeters.

  The back of the leaf is covered with a lot of detailed pubescence, and shows the state of the velvet. The leaf of the persimmon was made wide and it made it to large, and the leaf was soft, and is indeed splendid.

  It stops temporarily at the high temperature time of summer though the elongating growth of the branch is early.A silver white color sprout continues the elongating growth from April to November every day. The vegetative shoot does the extension growth by one meter or more a year.The water shoot extends by as many as 4 meters.

  The accessory shoot is never generated if there are neither a leaf abscission nor a defoliation. The elongating growth stops surely by the pinching.The shoot often hangs down by the weight of oneself because it is soft and long.

  It is early to become fruit bearing age. Because flower but begins to be born in 2/3 years, it is possible to bring it forth as long as pollination is executed.


It is possible to harvest all the year round by flowering one after another.

  In the greenhouse of Wakayama Tropics where the flowering starts in the middle of May.The vegetative shoot without flower bud germinates again by the pinching and the defoliation and secures flower bud.Therefore, if the hand is put, only wanting it can make the flower bloom in a necessary branch.Fruits can always be harvested if it grows it while adjusting it to a suitable temperature for the growth and development.

  This is a peculiar mode of life to the sweetsop belonging, and the changing characteristic which other fruit trees do not have.Therefore, the flower of the cherimoya does not bloom all together for a constant period. It flowers from the spring to the autumn one after another as fruits being developed. The settled flowering extends over three months, too. 

 

 

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uesankaku.gif (911 ???)The flower blooms one after another as fruits being developed.


The flower opens at night.

  The flower of the cherimoya is a hermaphrodite flower . It has three massive petals and it is long and slender.The outside of the petal is covered with the pubescence with a detailed tea brown.The inside of the petal is a cream-colored like the waxwork.There is the long one of six centimeter according to the cultivar though the length of the petal is about three centimeter.
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hidarisankaku.gif (913 ???)A lovely flower of the waxwork externals flowers in the evening and drifts an elegant aroma like the perfume.

Most pollens will be discharged by the flowering at about 4p.m., and darkening.

 


Pistil and pollen pass each other by dichogamy.

  After the flowering, pollen will be discharged from protandry soon. However, it is time when mature about pistil became so that the petal may be opened half and come earlier than it.

  Pistil secretes honey mucus in stigma, straightens the situation to which pollen adheres easily, shoots a mellow aroma like a perfume, and informs of the proper time of pollination.However, the pollination time of appropriate pistil is former during a day when pollen is discharged from protandry. When protandry discharged pollen, pistil had already lost the fertilization ability.

  Therefore, it does not privately pollinate though it is a hermaphrodite flower.In a word, it brings it forth by the bud pollination immediately before the flowering.

  In Japan, there is no powerful flower visiting insect to which the pollen of the cherimoya is mediated.Even if a beehive is brought in by the cherimoya, a honey bee is an unconcerned.

  Insect (Orius) of aboriginality might be working on the primeval ground of the cherimoya and the production ground in Spain.However, if the hand pollination is not done in Japan, it hardly brings it forth.


The cherimoya fruits to which the rural air is abundant are splendid multiple fruit.

The heart type of fruits of a mature cherimoya is typical . The size also has the one for the big one to exceed 1 kilogram from 300 grams though it differs in the entering condition of the cultivar and the seed.The color of fruits is light greens, and externals are like the a half blood of the pineapple and artichke.It is classified into some types by externals of fruits.It is the one with the pattern suppressed by the tip of a finger, and, moreover, the one, etc. in which the nipple projects.
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  The appearance and the shape of fruits contain a lot of rural airs very much.

  Under the projection of this pattern and the nipple, there is an ovule respectively.As many as 100 ovules gather, too and one fruits are formed.Therefore, the cherimoya is called a multiple fruit.And, the seed of the black soybean externals which correspond to the number of ovules is included. 

  After the flowering, fruits keep growing for four months or six months.When the climate is cool, it keeps growing for ten months or more.

  The color of fruits also has green to light, and has the cultivar which wears yellow by maturity.However, the peel almost faces fruit drop like being hard in green.

 


Peculiar flavors are three large delicious fruit of the world according to the ripening.

  After it harvests for the characteristic of after ripening, fruits of the cherimoya face full ripeness by the ripening for the first time. Fruits mature on tree are hard immediately after the harvest and not eaten. The soft do full ripeness in the place of 20/25 degree centigrade after it harvests by the ripening for several days or one weeks, and a mellow flavor is shown.

  The flesh after the ripening also is soft and has a sweet, faint acidity in a lot of fruit juices. Because it contains the brix of 20% or more, and has a peculiar flavor, it is praised with three large delicious fruit of the world.

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  When it encounters lower temperature than eight degrees in centigrade at long time, fruits before full ripeness cause the chilling injury.Even if fruits are returned to the suitable temperature afterwards, ripening is not normally done. Normal ripening of the high temperature which exceeds 30 degrees in centigrade is difficult.

  The keeping quality of fruits which softened after full ripeness is short.The taste changes on 2/3 days or more even if it is kept with the refrigerator of about five degrees in centigrade. Long preservation is a taboo as said, "A delicious thing can be eaten at in the evening"About one week can be preserved in the warehouse of the temperature of ice, and to preserve it longer than it, it can do nothing but freeze.

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